Thursday, February 13, 2020
Partition of India and how Its Shaped Modern Day India - Essay Example In order to avoid that Britain deliberately divide India based on religion. Thus Muslim dominated Pakistan and Hindu dominated India were formed in 1947. Until, Britain divide India based on religion; both Hindus and Muslims were living in harmony in India. However, the enmity started to grow between India and Pakistan after the independence of India. The major unresolved problem for enmity between India and Pakistan is the Kashmir issue. Pakistan still believes that the Muslim dominated Kashmir is part of Pakistan even though at the time of partition Kashmiri leader Sheikh Abdulla decided to attach Kashmir as a part of India. The struggle for the ownership of Kashmir is still going on between India and Pakistan and many wars were fought between these two nuclear powers in the past. Many people believe that if India and Pakistan are joined together, they would become the most powerful superpower nation in the world. However, the increasing conflicts between India and Pakistan are ret arding the economic progress not only in India but also in Pakistan. Amidst all these challenging political environments, India achieved tremendous economic growth in the past few decades. According to political analysts, India may become another superpower in the near future itself. This paper analyses how the partition in 1947 shaped modern day India. The principles of India's foreign policy have stood the test of time: a belief in friendly relations with all countries of the world, the resolution of conflicts by peaceful means, the sovereign equality of all states, independence of thought and action as manifested in the principles of Non-alignment, and equity in the conduct of international relationsÃ (India's Foreign Policy - 50 Years of Achievement) India opted for a neutral approach after its independence, instead of polarising towards any of the superpowers of that time. In fact India was a prominent country which worked for the formation of a non-aligned movement (NAM). Ja waharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India worked together with Egyptian leader Abdul Nazar and Yugoslav President Tito for the formation of NAM. This foreign policy helped India to avoid any major struggle with the superpowers. In fact India treated former Soviet Union and America in the same manner, even though some political analysts visualise some close connections between India and USSR in the past. When Britain decided to divide India, their major objective was to prevent India from becoming a global power. The initial decades immediately after the independence of India created a feeling among the rest of the world that Britain succeeded in its mission to prevent India from achieving rapid growth. In 1965 and in 1971, India engaged in a fierce war with Pakistan over the Kashmir issue and the costs of these wars were more than enough for India like a heavily populated country to bear. India faced the two major challenges after its independence; the threat from Pakistan a nd the growing population size. India implemented some family planning measures in order to reduce the rate of population growth. Small family with one of two children maximum was a slogan encouraged in India after the independence. Economists in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s warned India that if India fails to control its population growth, economic progress would be
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Body Image - Essay Example During the year 1870s, anorexia nervosa first existed and was initially perceived as a nervous disorder associated with young women. But in the 19th century, anorexia is defined as: "(1) a refusal to maintain a normal body weight with body weight at least 15 percent below that expected; (2) an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat despite being underweight; (3) body image distortion, 'feeling fat' and overvaluation of thinness; and (4) a reduction of food intake, avoidance of fattening foods, often with extensive exercise, self-induced vomiting, laxative or diuretic abuse so as to achieve the weight loss and maintain a low body weight" (qtd. in Malson 3). Out of many studies from different researchers about the severity of eating disorder, it was Lacey's (1985) "false self" and "borderline" eating-disordered patients that corresponded to the most severe forms of the illness. Lacy's (1985) idea on "false self" was actually motivated from observations of Winnicott (1975) that discrepancies in the self came out either as an adaptation to a lack of emphatic encouragement and support from the primary caretaker, or as an unintentional consequence of miscuing between mother and child. Consequently, due to this disruption, it might cause problems in introspective/reflective awareness, or insufficient consolidation of self-regulatory skills. Since there is already a lack of inner awareness, an adolescent eating-disordered woman might present with an undemanding, compliant personality that is sensitive to outer, but not inner signs (Eliot 2004). Accordingly, the woman might tend to be a "people pleaser" whose pseudo-maturity and intuitive auto nomy are part of the false pretense. On the other hand, the so-called "borderline" patients encompassed the most seriously ill group even up to the present day. Particular characteristics portrayed by these patients are the perception of themselves as overwhelmed, always in danger, of no value, and unattractive. Correspondingly, they see other people as corrective, controlling, and insensitively critical. Their fragmented sense of self and fragile ego boundaries often result in poor impulse control and a anxious search for external tension regulation. Behaviors that are exhibited in order to lessen and alleviate a sense of internal emptiness and despair cause these patients to be poly-symptomatic and particularly difficult to help. Factors Affecting Anorexia Nervosa There are in point of fact numerous factors that can be enumerated that affect eating disorders in women. It may be due to socio-cultural factors, family problems, individual vulnerability as a result of trauma or things that might have gone wrong in the difficult early mother-child relationship, and the influence brought about by the mass media. In sticking with the scope of this paper, the socio-cultural factors and the mass media are the only factors that are further discussed aligning to this paper's purpose. Socio-cultural Factors As women reach adolescence, they undergo a lot of physical changes like their size and shape. It is also during this time when culture
Friday, January 24, 2020
Kafka's Hunger Artist Kafka, in his masterpiece "The Hunger Artist," suggests that humans can never satisfy their desires. This is illustrated through the metaphorical hunger artist for whom nourishment is not being nourished at all. The viewing public's interest is derived from their desire to see the hunger artist cheating, but to view this would put an end to that desire. Finally, Kafka presents this idea while the artist is at the circus and describing when people wish to view the starved man. The hunger artist's nourishment is spiritual. The man only wishes to be honored by the public. As he continuously spirals downward in his health, he looses all forms of material nourishment. As the days go on, there is conflict between the artist and the audience, as they do not believe him honest in claiming not to have eaten. By searching for the audience's approval, a symbol for spiritual nourishment, he loses both material and spiritual nourishment. The climax of the story occurs when he finally achieves his final goal which he believes will give...
Thursday, January 16, 2020
There are grave consequences when people do not wash their hands or wash them improperly. It is known that hands are the main media for contaminants getting to people, whether the infections are airborne, oral or tactile. Infectious diseases that are commonly spread through hand to hand contact include the common cold, and several gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhoea (WaterAid, 2006). Human hands usually harbour microorganisms both as part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢snormal microbial flora as well as transient microbes acquired from the environment (Lindberg et al, 2004).According to Kartha (200! ), many people consider handwashing a waste of time. However, they are unaware that hands are hosts to many bacteria and viruses that can cause infectious diseases. Every human being comes in contact with germs and bacteria in their daily life. These harmful microorganisms are present all around Ã¢â¬â on door knobs, faucets, light switches, tables, and railings. People touch these things during the day while doing their routine work without much thought, and then touch their face, eyes, nose, and sometimes eat food too.Through these acts, the microorganisms get into the body, causing several diseases. People, who are careless at washing hands, risk catching flu, or cold, or any gastrointestinal illness (Kartha, 2001). Mayo Clinic (2009) also asserted that as people touch one another, surfaces and objects throughout the day, they accumulate germs on their hands. In turn, they can infect themselves with these germs by touching their eyes, nose or mouth. Hands serve as vectors transmitting pathogens to foodstuffs and drinks and to the mouths of susceptible hosts (Huttly, 1997).Many food borne diseases and pathogenic microorganisms are spread by contaminated hands. If pathogens from human faeces enter a personÃ¢â¬â¢s mouth, they will cause diarrhoea. School going children are exposed to greater risks of diarrhoeal disease by consuming contaminated water and food (Dasg upta, 2005). Students in schools or colleges are more likely to take meal and water without washing hands and may be exposed to risk of infection (Tambekar et al, 2007). If proper treatment is not given, this can prove fatal, particularly to children (WHO, 2006).In Ghana, funeral celebrations are very important social functions at which hundreds of people gather. From experience, one important activity during such gatherings is handshaking. Indeed, it is considered offensive and disrespectful for cultural values when one does not proffer his hand for shaking. It is however unfortunate that when people are served snacks and food during such occasions, handwashing facilities are not made available. People therefore eat with unwashed hands.The advent of some serious gastrointestinal illnesses (for example, cholera) had been traced to such gatherings. Handwashing defined Handwashing is defined as the act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of removing soil or microorganisms (Biology-online, 2011; Medconditions, 2011). 2. 6. 1 Attitudes of handwashing Handwashing has been an age old practice globally. It is carried out for varied reasons, including religious, cultural, health and moral reasons.Attitudes towards handwashing are very important. They go a long way to determine the practice of handwashing and its effect on health. In a study by Hoque et al (1995), 90 women from randomly selected households in rural Bangladesh were observed washing their hands after defaecation. Thirty-eight percent of the women used mud, 2% used ash, 19% used soap, and 41% used water only without a rubbing agent. A total of 44% of women washed both hands, while 56% washed only their left hands.About 78% of the women dried or wiped their hand on their clothes and the rest let them air dry. According to SHEWA-B (2007), in Bangladesh (and in some regions of the sub-continent), observations on handwash ing practices identified that handwashing with water alone before food preparation and eating was quite common (47 Ã¢â¬â 76%), but washing hands with soap or ash was observed =2% of the time. Washing of both hands with soap or ash was more common after defaecation (17 Ã¢â¬â 18 %), after cleaning a childÃ¢â¬â¢s anus (22 Ã¢â¬â 24%) or after handling cow dung (12 Ã¢â¬â 20%).Findings also showed that availability of handwashing materials such as soap, ash or mud at the site of handwashing was low, with approximately 30%, and =1% of households having the specified material. Water availability was high. Hand drying was observed to take place before preparing food, after defaecation, after eating and before serving food. A high proportion of females did not dry their hands after handwashing. A staggering one out of three Americans skips handwashing after going to the bathroom.Only 30% of people who have coughed or sneezed into their hands wash their hands afterwards. Kids are even worse. In a survey of junior high and high school boys and girls, only 58% of girls and 48% of boys washed up after using the rest room (Wisegeek. com, 2011). Worldwide rates of handwashing with soap are very low. While many wash their hands with water, only a small percent use soap at critical times. In Ghana, for example, the rates for handwashing with soap after defaecation is 3% and after cleaning up a child is also 3% each (PPPHW, 2010). 2. 6. Economic considerations Efforts to modify human behaviour are complex. People can only expect to be successful if there is an understanding of what motivates, facilitates, and hinders adequate handwashing behaviour (Curtis et al, 1997; OÃ¢â¬â¢Boyle et al, 2001). Curtis et al (2001) noted that modern methods of promoting handwashing can be effective and cost-effective on a large scale. Studies suggest that soap is widely available, even in poor households in developing countries, although it is mostly used for bathing and washing c lothes (Borghi et al, 2002).In rural India and Bangladesh, soap is often considered a beautifying agent or for the physical feeling of cleanliness which it gives, rather than being associated with the removal of microorganisms or health benefits (Hoque and Briend, 1991; Hoque et al, 1995). In low income communities, soil, mud or ash may be used as a zero cost alternative to soap for handwashing (Zeitlyn and Islam, 1991). Hoque et al (1995) again reported that altogether, 81% of non-soap users stated that they might use soap, but were unable to afford it. Critical times for handwashingA defensive strategy is important when trying to avoid infecting oneself with an illness lying in wait (Wisegeek. com, 2011). According to Mayo Clinic (2009), frequent handwashing is one of the best ways to avoid getting sick and spreading illness. Although it is impossible to keep hands germ-free, washing hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. It is possib le that people do not wash their hands as often as they should. Handwashing prevents both diarrhoea and respiratory infections effectively whendone properly and at critical times.The critical times must be observed and conscious efforts made to clean hands at such times. A number of sources (Mayo Clinic, 2009; ASH, 2011, All Family Resources, 1999 and CDC, 2010) agree on a number of critical times when hands must be washed. The critical times include: ? Before preparing food; ? Before eating; ? Before treating wounds or giving medicine; ? Before touching a sick or injured person; ? Before inserting or removing contact lenses; ? After preparing food, especially raw meat or poultry; ? After using the toilet/bathroom; ? After changing a diaper; After touching an animal, or animal toys, leashes or waste; ? After blowing your nose, coughing or sneezing into your hands; ? After touching a sick or injured person; ?After handling garbage or something that could be contaminated, such as a cl eaning cloth or soiled shoes; ? Whenever hands look dirty. Some include also washing hands after handling money (ASH, 2011), before going home, immediately one gets home, on arrival at the workplace (All Family Resources, 1999), after combing hair (USDA, 2011) and after smoking (EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s kids, 2011). . 6. 4 Process of handwashing Though people know the importance of handwashing, not many know how to do it properly. Handwashing does not mean just running water over your palms. It has to be done very carefully and in detail (Kartha, 2001). Mayo Clinic (2009) suggests the following steps: ? Wet hands with (running) water; ?Apply cleansing agent; ? Lather well; ? Rub hands vigorously for at least 10 to 20 seconds, remembering to scrub all surfaces, including the backs of hands, wrists, between fingers and under fingernails; ? Rinse well; Dry hands with a clean or disposable towel or dryer. The above steps have been advocated by several sources as well. These include ASH (2011); Al l Family Resources (1999); CDC (2010); Kartha (2001); Wisegeek. com (2011) and Gavin (2011). 2. 6. 5 Correct length of time Equally important is the length of time that hands are to be washed. The key is to lather up hands and rub vigorously for at least 15 to 20 seconds. Some suggest singing Ã¢â¬ËHappy BirthdayÃ¢â¬â¢ or the ABCs to keep a child washing hands for the correct amount of time (Wisegeek. com, 2011).EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Kids (2011) suggested that children sing a fun song while washing hands to mark the time of 15 Ã¢â¬â 20 seconds, so that they know how long they wash. Gavin ((2011) said to use soap and lather up for 20 seconds. Mayo Clinic (2009) noted that wet, soapy hands should be rubbed together outside the stream of running water for at least 20 seconds. CDC (2010) suggested scrubbing hands for 20 seconds, and while singing Ã¢â¬ËHappy BirthdayÃ¢â¬â¢ twice to get to 20 seconds. PPPHW (2008) also suggested singing any local fun song that would make up to 20 secon ds while hands are being rubbed together after applying cleansing agent.According to ASH (2011), hands must be rubbed together for at least 10 seconds while singing Ã¢â¬ËHappy BirthdayÃ¢â¬â¢ once for a perfect length of time. Rub hands vigorously until a soapy lather appears and continue for at least 15 seconds (All Family Resources, 1999). Mohave County Information Technology (2001) also recommends rubbing hands briskly for at least 20 seconds. From the foregone discussions it can be seen that rubbing hands together vigorously for anytime between 10 to 20 seconds or more should be adequate for pathogen reduction on the hands. Quantity of water needed for rinsing handsAccessible and plentiful water has been shown to encourage better hygiene, particularly handwashing (Curtis and Cairncross, 2000). Also, interventions to improve water quality at the source along with treatment of household water and safe storage systems have been shown to reduce diarrhoea incidence by as much as 4 7% (WHO, 2008). Hoque et al (1995), in a study, observed that as many as 74% of the 90 women rinsed their hands with 0. 7 litre of water or less. They however recommend that rinsing with 2 litres of clean water was protective, although such volumes may be difficult tosustain in the absence of on-plot access to water.Since pathogens removed during handrubbing have to be rinsed away, there must be a reasonable flow of water (Standard Operating Procedures, 1997). Mayo Clinic (2009) suggested the use of running water for rinsing hands. Water scarcity has an impact on hygiene practices such as handwashing. It could lead to person-to-person transmission due to inadequate personal and domestic hygiene. Water scarcity can therefore result in faecal-oral, skin and eye infections (Cairncross, 2011). Temperature of waterContrary to popular belief, scientific studies by Michaels et al (2002), and Laestadius and Dimberg (2005), have shown that using warm water has no effect on reducing the micro bial load on hands. Hot water that is comfortable for washing hands is not hot enough to kill bacteria. Microorganisms proliferate much faster at body temperature (37 degrees C). However, warm, soapy water is more effective than cold, soapy water at removing the natural oils which hold soils and bacteria (US Food and Drugs Administration, 2006). All Family Resources (1999) indicated that warm water should always be used for handwashing.ASH (2011), Kartha (2001), Wisegeek. com (2011) and Gavin (2011) also suggested the use of warm water for handwashing. CDC (2010) said that clean running water that was warm or cold could be used. The temperature of water has not been shown to be important in handwashing (Standard Operating Procedures, 1997). Efficacy of cleansing agents in microbial reduction Esrey et al (1991) have suggested that reducing the rate of pathogen ingestion causes the incidence of severe infections to begin to fall before that of mild ones. The reduction in the severity of infection is the ultimate purpose of handwashing.Therefore microbial reduction on hands would reduce the ingestion of pathogens since the hands have been proved to be the main transport route for gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory tract infections, skin infections (eg. impetigo) as well as eye infections (eg. conjunctivitis). This makes the agent employed in handwashing a necessary factor. Water only Pure water has a pH of seven, which makes it neutral. It is also known as a universal solvent. A number of studies (Cairncross, 1993; Ghosh et al, 1995; Khan, 1982; Oo et al, 2000) suggested that handwashing with water only provides little or no benefit.The application of water alone is inefficient for cleaning skin because water is often unable to remove fats, oils and proteins, which are components of organic soil (Standard Operating Procedure, 1997). Kalanke (Mali) (2011) noted that handwashing with water alone does not remove many germs. Hoque and Briend (1991), on the contra ry, showed that whilst less effective than when using a rubbing agent such as soap, mud or ash, some reductions in contamination were found when washing with water alone.Data on the effectiveness of handwashing with soap-based formulations, compared with water alone, in the removal of bacteria and viruses (Ansari et al, 1989; Mbithi et al, 1993) suggest that, in most (but not all) cases, liquid soap-based formulations were more effective than water only. However, the authors concluded that the differences were not statistically significant. Ash Hoque and Briend (1991) indicated that the use of alternative rubbing agents (mud or ash) provided the same benefits as soap.Again, Hoque et al (1995) also found that the use of ash and soap all achieved the same level of cleanliness. Ash, however, is considered less pleasant on the hands compared with soap or soil (Hoque and Briend, 1991). Despite the positive lifesaving potential of handwashing with soap (ash), proper handwashing is not bei ng practiced regularly by children in schools and homes (WASH United, 2010). Citrus lime fruit Scientifically known as Citrus aurantifolia, there are two natural groups of the citrus lime fruit Ã¢â¬â acid (sour) limes, and acidless (sweet) limes.The Ã¢â¬ËWest IndianÃ¢â¬â¢ lime, also called Mexican and Key lime is round, small-fruited, moderately seedy and highly polyembryonic; it has a thin, smooth rind, greenish flesh and a citric acid content ranging from 7% to 8%. It is usually grown as a seedling, as no satisfactory rootstock is known, but in Ghana it is grown on Rough lemon stock (Samson, 1986). Soap A number of studies indicate that washing hands with soap is the critical component of the handwashing behaviour (Cairncross, 1993; Ghosh et al, 1997; Khan, 1982; Oo et al, 2000). Kartha (2001) noted that the most essential thing required to wash hands is soap.Again, studies have shown that hands can carry faeces to surfaces, to foods, and to future hosts, and handwashing wi th soap is effective in removing pathogens (Han et a. , 1986; Kaltenthaler et al, 1991; Ansari et al, 1991). Improvements in access to safe water and adequate sanitation, along with the promotion of good hygiene practices (particularly handwashing with soap), can help prevent diarrhoea (Black et al, 2003). PPPHW (2011) affirmed that promoted on a wide enough scale, handwashing with soap can be thought of as a Ã¢â¬Ëdo- it-yourselfÃ¢â¬â¢ vaccine. Choice of soapDebate has been ongoing about the best type of soap to be used in handwashing. A study by Aiello (2007) indicated that plain soaps are as effective as consumer-grade antibacterial soaps in preventing illness and removing bacteria from the hands. Mayo Clinic (2009) admonished people to keep in mind that antibacterial soap is no more effective at killing germs than is regular soap. Using antibacterial soap may even lead to the development of bacteria that are resistant to the productsÃ¢â¬â¢ antimicrobial agents Ã¢â¬â maki ng it harder to kill these germs in the future.Commenting on favoured features for soap, women in Ghana cited a range of attributes Ã¢â¬â smell, cost, texture and durability, and its capacity to be used for multiple purposes. For the women, the most important attribute was the smell of the soap, andthe most popular scents were mild lime and lemon. Concerning cost, cheaper soaps were preferred, although women were sometimes willing to pay more if the soap was larger or they thought it would last longer. Commenting on texture / durability, associated with cost, women preferred harder bar soaps or liquid varieties as they thought they lasted longer.So strong was the preference for hard soaps that many stored soap in cool or sunny or airy places to harden them before use. Some women thought liquid soap more economical since only a peanut size was adequate for each hand wash. Many women preferred laundry bar soap because it could be used as a multipurpose soap such as for laundering, bathing and washing dishes at the same time (PPPHW, 2010). The act of handrubbing It has been suggested by Hoque et al, (1995) that the key component of the handwashing process is the mechanical rubbing of the hands.They noted that the trend towards better results from handwashing with both hands, increased frequency of rubbing and an increased volume of rinsing water all support the prime importance of scrubbing / frictional motion and consequent washing out of loose bacteria with water. Although results of studies carried out suggest that the use of a rubbing agent is important, the authors suggested that the nature of the rubbing agent is a less important factor. Soap, they indicated, was more effective than soil and ash because soap users tend to rub their hands more and use more water to rinse away the soapy feeling on them.CDC (2011) advised people to rub hands together vigorously to make a lather and to continue scrubbing for 20 seconds because it takes that long for the soap and scrubbing action to dislodge and remove stubborn germs. Beneficial effects of handwashing Handwashing has been regarded as a key infection-control practice since Semmelweis suggested its introduction in health care settings (Semmelweis, 1847 in Koo, 2008). The handwashing behaviour has been shown to cut the number of child deaths from diarrhoea (the second leading cause of child deaths) by almost half and from pneumonia (the leading cause of child deaths) by one-quarter (WHO, 2008).The strong causal relationship between hand hygiene and gastro-intestinal disease risk has also been demonstrated by meta-analysis of community based interventions. Curtis and Cairncross (2003) estimated a reduction of 42 Ã¢â¬â 47% in diarrhoeal diseases associated with handwashing. Fewtrell et al (2005) showed a 44% reduction in diarrhoeal illness associated with handwashing. In a study, Aiello et al (2008) estimated that handwashing with soap combined with education could produce a 39% reduction in gastrointestinal illness. All the three meta-analyses were carried out using data from studies conducted in both developed and developing countries.In a review of hand hygiene studies involving respiratory tract infections, Rabie and Curtis (2006) reported that hand hygiene (handwashing, education and waterless hand sanitizers) can reduce the risk of respiratory infections by 16%. Aiello et al. (2008) also estimated that the reduction in respiratory illness associated with the pooled effects of hand hygiene (handwashing with soap, use of alcohol handrubs) was 21%. A study conducted by Luby et al (2005) reported the impact of handwashing with soap on pneumonia in children under five, in squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan.The results indicated a 50% reduction in pneumonia in the intervention compared with the control group. Luby et al noted that a link between handwashingand the prevention of pneumonia in developing countries is plausible on the basis that, in developing co untries it is known that viruses cause pneumonia. Another study found that children under 15 years living in households that received handwashing promotion and soap had half the diarrhoeal rates of children living in control neighbourhoods (Luby et al, 2004).Because handwashing can prevent the transmission of a variety of pathogens, it may be more effective than any single vaccine. Handwashing can also prevent skin infections (eg. impetigo), eye infections (eg. conjunctivitis), intestinal worms, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Avian Flu. It benefits the health of people living with HIV/AIDS. Handwashing is effective in preventing the spread of disease even in overcrowded, highly contaminated slum environments (PPPHW, 2008).
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Everyone loves a discount. The bigger the better. When youre shopping, its always a good idea to keep aÃ lookout for good deals and discount signs. If youre shopping or bartering in China or Taiwan, make sure to understand how discounts work in Chinese. Otherwise, you might end up paying for a price much higher than you expected! When it comes to Mandarin Chinese discounts, they are expressed the opposite of English. In English, discount signs are labeled as X% off. In Chinese stores, discount signs will tell you the percentage of the original price that you now have to pay.Ã So donÃ¢â¬â¢t get too excited when something is marked 9 Ã¦Å Ë (jiÃâ zhÃ ©); that doesnt mean 90% off. It means you can buy it for 90% of its regular price Ã¢â¬â a 10% discount. The format for discounts is number Ã¦Å Ë. Western (Arabic) numbers are used instead of Chinese characters. Here are some examples: 7 Ã¦Å ËqÃ « zhÃ ©30% off5 Ã¦Å ËwÃâ zhÃ ©50% off2.5 Ã¦Å ËÃ ¨r diÃÅ½n wÃâ zhÃ ©75% off You might be confused as to how 7 refers to 70% rather than 7%, 5 refers to 50% rather than 5%, and so on. This is because 7Ã Ã¦Å Ë means 0.7 times the price. If an item originally costs $100 but has aÃ 7Ã Ã¦Å Ë discount, then the final cost is 0.7 x $100, or $70.Ã So when looking out for discount signs in Chinese, remember that the smaller the number, the bigger the discount.
Monday, December 30, 2019
When I initially found out that I was interviewing Josh for my one-to-one I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too stoked on the idea. I was a bit worried that our session together might not be as personal as I would like and that he would find it hard to open up because of our differences. I originally asked him to meet me at the Minnesota International Student Association (MISA) lounge on the second floor of Coffman Union. MISA is a space specifically catered to International students and multi-cultural students so I assumed it would be different from what Josh might be accustomed to. When Josh arrived at the MISA lounge the room was occupied by a student group event, so I took him to the room right next door, the Asian Student Union lounge. By the way Josh looked around the room, I could tell that he was a little uncomfortable by the Ã¢â¬Å"AsianessÃ¢â¬ of the room, so I asked him if he would rather do the interview somewhere else. He replied back that he was fine with the space so we carried on wi th our 1 on 1. To begin with, I asked Josh to tell me his story and share some significant moments in his life. It was a very vague question and I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t expect much contend from his answers. He began with the very nonspecific details about his childhood growing up in Woodbury, MN and how lived a very Ã¢â¬Å"normalÃ¢â¬ life. He talked about how he participated in soccer, baseball and hockey and how sports kept him occupied while growing up. I felt that he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sharing much so I asked him the question again about a
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Compensation practices Apple Apple Corporation was formally known as Apple Computer, Inc. It is an American based multinational organization. Organization s base camp situated in Cupertino, California. Macintosh creates, outlines, and offers PC programming, shop gadgets, and PCs. One of its most famous items is the Mac line of PCs, iPhone, iPad, and iPod. Some of its product incorporates iTunes, media program OS X, and the iOS are working frameworks. The organization was begun on April 1, 1976, and enlisted as Apple Computer on January 3, 1977. Computer was taken from its before name in the year 2007. It was proposed to mirror organization s new thoughtfulness regarding client gadgets after the presentation of the iPhone. Apple is world s second greatest data innovation organization by income after Samsung Electronics. It is additionally world s number three organization in telephone making after Nokia and Samsung. In the year 2008, the organization was the most respected organization by United States nationals. Toward the end of 2012, the organization had 394 retail locations all spread in 14 nations. It made Apple organization be the second biggest traded on an open market organization comprehensively by business sector capitalization. In January 2013, the organization was assessed to be worth 414 bln USD. As of September 29, 2012, the organization had a sum of 72,800 permanent full-time representatives. It likewise had 3,300 brief full-time workers universally.Show MoreRelatedMicrosofts Human Resource Management Strategy679 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Microsoft CORPORATION HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Company Profile: Microsoft Corporation Importance of Strategic Human Resource Management Talent Management Strategies Compensation and benefit packages for employees Policies and practices for Labor relations management Comparison with the Competitors Conclusion OBJECTIVES OF THE HRM STRATEGY To design effective talent management strategies; including recruitment and selection, motivation and retention, performanceRead MoreExecutive Compensation : A Pay Ratio Rule1083 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s Compensation Nola Ward Independence University Introduction More than five years ago the Securities and Exchange Commission was told to issue a pay ratio rule that companies that are public must disclose how their median workerÃ¢â¬â¢s pay compares to their chief executive officers pay. 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Demonstrate Integrity: Integrity deals with honesty andRead MoreHuman Resource Functions at Apple Computers Inc: An Analysis1544 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Apple Human Resource: Apple Computer Inc. or Apple Inc. is a multinational corporation in the United States that develops and markets consumer electronics, personal computers, and computer software. The firm is widely recognized for several hardware products like the Macintosh brand of computers, the iPad, the iPhone, and the iPod. On the contrary, Apples software products include Mac OS X operating system, Final Cut Studio, the iTunes media browser, and a series of professional audio and film-industryRead MoreApple, Inc. : An American International Corporation Essay718 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesApple, Inc. is an American international corporation. Their head office is located in Cupertino, California. The company create, build, and market customer electronics, computer software, online services and personal computers. The purpose of Apple, Inc. is to uphold and endure their quality. The company and the current market circumstances in which Apple, Inc. manages change swiftly and these variations have dictate d rapid fluctuations in management. (Successful Companies, 2016). There most successfulRead MoreStarbucks Vs. Tim Hortons Essay1210 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPepsi or Coke? Apple or Android? Starbucks or Tim Hortons? These are seemingly insignificant choices between products; however, taken together they structure the lives of individuals. To reduce brands to anything less would be to negate the significance they hold in the fabric of individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. What is important, then, is to uncover the ways in which certain brands weave their way into this fabric through their advertising practices and promotional culture. This paper begins with a brief historicalRead MoreEconomics750 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesDiscuss the primary reason for the restatement and the impact to the financial results for the company you selected. Apple Inc. is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and personal computers. The company is best-known for its Macintosh line of computers, the iPod, the iPhone and the iPad. As of July 2011[update], Apple has 357 retail stores in ten countries. It is the largest publicly traded company in the world my market capitalizationRead MoreFinance and Investment Questions1714 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor greater corporate transparency in aspects such as financial reporting and internal reform. As the text by Schlageter (2012) notes, increasingly, successful CEOs are the ones that realize their commitment to transparency and ethical business practices can provide their organization with a competitive advantage. Corruption is the antithesis of growth, and flourishes where secrecy is allowed. For the big box store in question here, the focus must be on reducing secrecy through greater honestyRead MoreObjectives Of Strategic Staffing Planning1431 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesmeet business needs. Compensation Compensation is utilized to motivate and retain skilled employees. It is important to for the organization attach compensation with the overall goals and strategies. Human resource links employee compensation, skill set and minimum years of employment requirement to ensure that the compensation system is worth the organizations financial and potential mentorship investments. Not only is it important for an organization to link compensation to its overall goals andRead MoreExecutive Compensation and the Dramatic Increase in Corporate Accounting Scandals969 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesExecutive Compensation and the Dramatic Increase in Corporate Accounting Scandals According to one estimate, the total median CEO pay at the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s 350 largest publicly-owned firms grew from $2.7 million annually in 1995 to $6.8 million in 2005. The overall increase in CEO pay has outstripped inflation and the growth in non-managerial pay over the same period. Equally important is the trend in the composition of CEO performance-based pay which includes stock and stock option grants. Median